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All You Need to Know About Climate Change

Global warming is the rise in the average temperature of Earth’s atmosphere and oceans. Since the early 20th century, Average temperatures have climbed 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit (0.8 degree Celsius) around the world since 1880, with about two-thirds of the increase occurring since 1980, according to NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies. The 20th century’s last two decades were the hottest in 400 years and possibly the warmest for several millennia

Global Warming is primarily caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. The primary greenhouse gas responsible for global warming is carbon dioxide. The U.S. is responsible for 19.91% of the carbon dioxide emissions worldwide. Carbon dioxide takes 100 years to disperse in the atmosphere. Even if emissions are stopped today, we will still feel the effects for years to come.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate model indicated that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C (2 to 5.2 °F) for their lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C (4.3 to 11.5 °F) for their highest.

The effects of an increase in global temperature include a rise in sea levels and a change in the amount and pattern of precipitation, as well a probable expansion of subtropical deserts. Global warming would be associated with the continuing retreat of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice; more frequent occurrence of extreme-weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall, ocean acidification and species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes. Effects significant to humans include the threat to food security from decreasing crop yields and the loss of habitat.

Sea levels have risen between 4-8 inches worldwide during the last century, and experts predict they could rise as much 2 feet in the next 100 years.

The Arctic is feeling the effects the most. Average temperatures in Alaska, western Canada, and eastern Russia have risen at twice the global average, according to the multinational Arctic Climate Impact Assessment report compiled between 2000 and 2004.

Glaciers and mountain snows are rapidly melting—for example, Montana’s Glacier National Park now has only 27 glaciers, versus 150 in 1910. In the Northern Hemisphere, thaws also come a week earlier in spring and freezes begin a week later.

Coral reefs, which are highly sensitive to small changes in water temperature, suffered the worst bleaching—or die-off in response to stress—ever recorded in 1998, with some areas seeing bleach rates of 70 percent. Experts expect these sorts of events to increase in frequency and intensity in the next 50 years as sea temperatures rise.

The World Health Organization blames 150,000 deaths per year on the effects of global warming including extreme weather, drought, heat waves, decreased food production and the increased spread of diseases like malaria.

At least 279 species of plants and animals are already responding to global warming, migrating north to escape rising temperatures.

Coral reefs are highly sensitive to small changes in water temperature. Scientists say if current CO2 emission trends continue, the world’s coral reefs could be virtually destroyed by 2050.

Proposed policy responses to global warming include mitigation by emissions reduction, adaptation to its effects, and possible future geoengineering.

Reducing the amount of future climate change is called mitigation of climate change. The IPCC defines mitigation as activities that reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, or enhance the capacity of carbon sinks to absorb GHGs from the atmosphere. Adaptation to climate change may be planned, either in reaction to or anticipation of climate change, or spontaneous, i.e., without government intervention. Adaptation also define as the ability of a system (human, natural or managed) to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with consequences.

While Geoengineering is the deliberate modification of the climate, has been investigated as a possible response to global warming, e.g. by NASAand the Royal Society.

Stop climate change now.

Source : http://www.wikipedia.org


Rute Angkot Kota Bandung dan Lingkaran Ekonomi

Kota Bandung, Ibukota Provinsi Jawa Barat semakin hari semakin penuh dengan kendaraan bermotor. Pertambahan kendaraan pribadi yang semakin tinggi membuat jalan di Kota Bandung semakin sering macet. Angkutan Kota (Angkot) sebagai sarana transportasi umum semakin terdesak keberadaannya. Semakin sering kita temukan angkot yang “kosong” karena tidak ada penumpang. Sebagian besar penumpang menyalahkan angkot, karena kebiasan “ngetem” membuat waktu tempuh penumpang menjadi lebih lama dan tidak pasti.

Keberadaan angkot seperti berada di lingkaran “buruk” penyebab buruknya pelayanan angkot.

Pelayanan buruk (sering ngetem, mobil tidak nyaman, dll) => Penumpang kurang => Setoran kurang => Ngejar setoran dengan sering “ngetem” => Pelayanan buruk lagi => Penumpang lebih kurang lagi => dst, melingkar terus.

Tapi, kita tidak dapat menyalahkan pengemudi angkot juga. Kebijakan pemerintah yang sangat mempermudah keberadaan sepeda motor “asing” menguasai jalanan di Kota-kota besar juga ikut mempengaruhi penurunan jumlah penumpang angkot. Berdasarkan wawancara yang Saya lakukan dengan beberapa pengemudi angkot, mereka menyalahkan banyaknya motor yang begitu mudah didapatkan saat ini. Sebuah motor dapat dibeli dengan uang muka Rp.500 ribu saja dengan cicilan yang mencapai hanya ratusan ribu selama beberapa tahun.

Permasalahan mendasar pada Ilmu Ekonomi pada dasarnya adalah tentang Scarcity and Choice (Kelangkaan dan Pilihan). ……(BERSAMBUNG, nanti dilanjutkan lagi deh, mau berangkat dulu…. 😛 )

Ini rute lengkap angkot di Kota Bandung, semoga bermanfaat.

RUTE ANGKOT ABD. MUIS – CICAHEUM via BINONG :
PUNGKUR – TELAGA BODAS – PALASARI TURANGGA – GATOT SUBROTO – KIARA CONDONG – SUPRATMAN – KATAMSO – CIKUTRA – HASAN MUSTAPA

RUTE ANGKOT CICAHEUM – ABD. MUIS :
HASAN MUSTAPA – JAKARTA – KIARA CONDONG – TURANGGA – PALASARI – BUAH BATU – M. RAMDAN – MOH. TOHA

RUTE ANGKOT ABD. MUIS – CICAHEUM via ACEH :
KARAPITAN – SUNDA – ACEH – KATAMSO – PAHLAWAN – HASAN MUSTOPA

RUTE ANGKOT CICAHEUM – ABD. MUIS via ACEH :
HASAN MUSTOPA – KATAMSO – ACEH – SULAWESI – TAMBLONG – LENGKONG BESAR – CIATEUL

RUTE ANGKOT ABD. MUIS – DAGO :
PUNGKUR – KARAPITAN – SUNDA – BANDA – RE. MARTADINATA – Ir. H. JUANDA

RUTE ANGKOT DAGO – ABD. MUIS :
Ir. H. JUANDA – ACEH – SUMATRA – TAMBLONG – LENGKONG – CIATEUL

RUTE ANGKOT ABD. MUIS – LEDENG :
PUNGKUR – KARAPITAN – SUNDA – BANDA – RE. MARTADINATA – WASTUKENCANA – CIPAGANTI – SETIA BUDI

RUTE ANGKOT LEDENG – ABD. MUIS :
SETIA BUDI – CIHAMPELAS – WASTUKENCANA – ACEH – SUMATRA – LENGKONG – CIATEUL

RUTE ANGKOT ELANG – ABD. MUIS :
SURYANI – PAGARSIH – OTISTA – CIATEUL

RUTE ANGKOT ABD. MUIS – ELANG :
OTISTA – ASTANA ANYAR – PAGARSIH – SURYANI – HOLIS – BOJONG – CIJERAH

RUTE ANGKOT CICAHEUM – LEDENG :
RUTE: HASAN MUSTOPA – KATAMSO – SUPRATMAN – DIPONEGORO – SULANJANA – TAMAN SARI – SILIWANGI – SETIA BUDI

RUTE ANGKOT LEDENG – CICAHEUM :
SETIA BUDI – SILIWANGI – TAMAN SARI – SULANJANA – DIPONEGORO – SUPRATMAN – KATAMSO – HASAN MUSTOPA

RUTE ANGKOT CICAHEUM – CIROYOM :
HASAN MUSTOPA – SURAPATI – DIPATI UKUR – SILIWANGI – CIHAMPELAS – EYJKMAN – PASIR KALIKI – PADJAJARAN – ARUNA

RUTE ANGKOT CIROYOM – CICAHEUM :
ARUNA – PADJAJARAN – PASIR KALIKI – CIPAGANTI – SILIWANGI – DIPATI UKUR – SURAPATI – HASAN MUSTOPA

RUTE ANGKOT CICAHEUM – CIWASTRA :
HASAN MUSTOPA – SURAPATI – SUPRATMAN – JAKARTA – KIARA CONDONG – MARGA CINTA

RUTE ANGKOT CIWASTRA – CICAHEUM :
MARGA CINTA – BUAH BATU – KIARA CONDONG – JAKARTA – SUPRATMAN – SURAPATI – HASAN MUSTOPA

RUTE ANGKOT CICAHEUM – CIBADUYUT :
HASAN MUSTOPA – KATAMSO – SUPRATMAN – JAKARTA – KIARA CONDONG – SUKARNO HATTA – CIBADUYUT

RUTE ANGKOT CIBADUYUT – CICAHEUM :
SUKARNO HATTA – KIARA CONDONG – JAKARTA – SUPRATMAN – KATAMSO – HASAN MUSTOPA

RUTE ANGKOT ST. HALL – DAGO :
PERINTIS KEMERDEKAAN – SERAM – RE. MARTADINATA – Ir. H. JUANDA

RUTE ANGKOT DAGO – ST. HALL :
Ir. H. JUANDA – MERDEKA (BIP) – SUNIARAJA – STASION

RUTE ANGKOT ST. HALL – SD. SERANG :
LEMBONG – LOMBOK – SUPRATMAN – KATAMSO – CIKUTRA

RUTE ANGKOT SD. SERANG – ST. HALL :
CIKUTRA – KATAMSO – SUPRATMAN – MERDEKA – SUNIARAJA

RUTE ANGKOT ST. HALL – CIUMBULEUIT via EYCKMAN :
KEBUN JUKUT – CICENDO -CIPAGANTI – CIUMBULEUIT

RUTE ANGKOT CIUMBULEUIT – ST. HALL :
CIUMBULEUIT – CIHAMPELAS – EYCKMAN – SUKAJADI – PASIR KALIKI

RUTE ANGKOT ST. HALL – CIUMBULEUIT via CIHAMPELAS :
KEBUN JUKUT – CICENDO -CIPAGANTI – CIUMBULEUIT

RUTE ANGKOT CIUMBULEUIT – ST. HALL :
CIUMBULEUIT – CIHAMPELAS – CICENDO – KEBUN KAWUNG

RUTE ANGKOT ST. HALL – GEDE BAGE :
OTISTA – ABC – NARIPAN – A. YANI – PALASARI – TALAGA BODAS – BUAH BATU – SUKARNO HATTA

RUTE ANGKOT GEDE BAGE – ST. HALL :
SUKARNO HATTA – BUAH BATU – TALAGA BODAS – PALASARI – A. YANI – SUMBAWA – ACEH – MERDEKA – SUNIARAJA

RUTE ANGKOT ST. HALL – SARIJADI :
KEBUN KAWUNG – JUNJUNAN – SURYASUMANTRI – TERS. SUTAMI

RUTE ANGKOT SARIJADI – ST .HALL :
TERS. SUTAMI – SURYASUMANTRI – JUNJUNAN – KEBUN KAWUNG

RUTE ANGKOT ST. HALL – GUNUNG BATU :
GN. BATU – JUNJUNAN – PASTEUR – CICENDO – KEBUN KAWUNG

RUTE ANGKOT GUNUNG BATU – ST. HALL :
KEBUN KAWUNG – CICENDO – PASTEUR – JUNJUNAN – GN. BATU

RUTE ANGKOT LEDENG – MARGAHAYU :
SUKAJADI – EYJKMAN – CIHAMPELAS – WASTUKENCANA – RE. MARTADINATA – JAKARTA – KIARA CONDONG – MARGAHAYU

RUTE ANGKOT MARGAHAYU – LEDENG :
KIARA CONDONG – JAKARTA – RE. MARTADINATA – WASTUKENCANA – CIPAGANTI – SETIA BUDI

RUTE ANGKOT DAGO – RIUNG BANDUNG :
DIPATI UKUR – DIPONEGORO – SUKABUMI – KIARA CONDONG – SUKARNO HATTA

RUTE ANGKOT RIUNG BANDUNG – DAGO :
SUKARNO HATTA – KIARA CONDONG – SUKABUMI – PATRAKOMALA – BANDA – DIPATI UKUR

RUTE ANGKOT DAGO – PASAR CARINGIN :
CIGADUNG – CIKUTRA – SURAPATI – CIKAPAYANG – PADJAJARAN – CIROYOM – PSR. KOJA – SUKARNO HATTA

RUTE ANGKOT PASAR CARINGIN – DAGO :
SUKARNO HATTA – PSR. KOJA – CIROYOM – KEBUN JATI – PADJAJARAN – WASTUKENCANA – TAMAN SARI – SURAPATI – CIGADUNG

RUTE ANGKOT PANHEGAR – DIPATI UKUR :
CISARANTEN – A. YANI – RE. MARTADINATA – TAMANSARI – GANESHA – UNPAD

RUTE ANGKOT DIPATI UKUR – PANHEGAR :
UNPAD – TAMAN SARI – RE. MARTADINATA – ACEH – SUMATRA – NARIPAN – A. YANI – CISARANTEN

RUTE ANGKOT CIROYOM – SARIJADI :
ARUNA – PASIR KALIKI – SUKAJADI – SUTAMI – CIPEDES – GEGERKALONG

RUTE ANGKOT SARIJADI – CIROYOM :
GEGERKALONG – SUTAMI – SUKAJADI -SEDRHANA – ABD. SALEH

RUTE ANGKOT CIROYOM? – BUMI ASRI :
HOLIS – BOJONG – CIJERAH – GEMPOLSARI- DIRGANTARA

RUTE ANGKOT BUMI ASRI – CIROYOM :
DIRGANTARA – GEMPOL SARI – CIJERAH – BOJONG – HOLIS – SUDIRMAN – RAJAWALI – KEBUN JATI – PASIR KALIKI – ABD. SALEH

RUTE ANGKOT CIROYOM – CIKUDAPATEUH :
RAJAWALI – KEBUN JATI – ASTANA ANYAR – BKR – M. RAMDAN – PALASARI – LASWI – A. YANI

RUTE ANGKOT CIKUDAPATEUH – CIROYOM :
A. YANI – PALASARI – M. RAMDAN – BKR – KOPO – ASTANA ANYAR – SUDIRMAN – ELANG – RAJAWALI

RUTE ANGKOT SEDERHANA – BUAH BATU :
JURANG – PASTEUR – CIHAMPELAS – CICENDO – LEMBONG – LENGKONG – CIKAWAO

RUTE ANGKOT BUAH BATU – SEDERHANA :
KARAPITAN – LENGKONG – ABD. MUIS – DEWI SARTIKA – CICENDO – DR. OTTEN – SUKAJADI

RUTE ANGKOT SEDERHANA – CIJERAH :
SUKAJADI – ABD. SALEH – GARUDA – SUDIRMAN – CIJERAH

RUTE ANGKOT CIJERAH – SEDERHANA :
CIJERAH – ELANG ABD. SALEH – SUKAJADI -SEDERHANA

RUTE ANGKOT SEDERHANA – CIMINDI :
SUKAJADI – SUKAGALIH – JUNJUNAN – MUSTANG – GN. BATU

RUTE ANGKOT CIMINDI – SEDERHANA :
GN. BATU – MUSTANG – JUNJUNAN – SUKAGALIH – SUKAJADI

RUTE ANGKOT TEGAL LEGA – CISITU :
ASTANA ANYAR – GARDU JATI – KEBUN JATI – CICENDO -WASTUKENCANA – TAMAN SARI – CISITU

RUTE ANGKOT CISITU – TEGAL LEGA :
CISITU – SILIWANGI – CIHAMPELAS – CICENDO – PSR. BARU – KALIPAHAPO – OTISTA

RUTE ANGKOT CIWASTRA – CIJERAH :
MARGA CINTA – KIARA CONDONG – BUAH BATU – BKR – LEUWI PANJANG – KOPO – CIBOLERANG – CIGONDEWAH – CIJERAH

RUTE ANGKOT CIJERAH – CIWASTRA :
CIJERAH – CIGONDEWAH – CIBOLERANG – KOPO – BKR – BUAH BATU – MARGA CINTA

RUTE ANGKOT CICADAS – ELANG :
KIARA CONDONG -GATOT SUBROTO – LENGKONG – ABD. MUIS – DEWI SARTIKA – KEBUN KAWUNG – ABD. SALEH

RUTE ANGKOT ELANG – CICADAS :
RAJAWALI – KEBUN JATI – OTISTA – DALEM KAUM – CIKAWAO – GATOT SUBROTO – KIARA CONDONG – JAKARTA

RUTE ANGKOT CIROYOM – ANTAPANI :
ABD. SALEH – PADJAJARAN – ACEH – LASWI – SUKABUMI – JAKARTA – PURWAKARTA

RUTE ANGKOT ANTAPANI – CIROYOM :
PURWAKARTA – JAKARTA – SUKABUMI – LASWI – ACEH – PADJAJARAN – ABD. SALEH

RUTE ANGKOT CICADAS – CIBIRU :
KIARA CONDONG – SUKARNO HATTA – CIBIRU

RUTE ANGKOT CIBIRU – CICADAS :
SUKARNO HATTA -KIARA CONDONG – JAKARTA – A. YANI

RUTE ANGKOT SADANG SERANG – GEDE BAGE :
TUBAGUS ISMAIL – Ir. H. JUANDA – SURAPATI – HASAN MUSTOPA – UJUNG BERUNG – RUMAH SAKIT – GEDE BAGE

RUTE ANGKOT GEDE BAGE – SADANG SERANG :
RUMAH SAKIT – UJUNG BERUNG – CIKUTRA – PAHLAWAN – SURAPATI – Ir. H. JUANDA – TUBAGUS ISMAIL

RUTE ANGKOT SADANG SERANG – CARINGIN :
TUBAGUS ISMAIL – TAMAN SARI – PADJAJARAN – KEBUN? KAWUNG – ABD. SALEH – GARUDA – CIJERAH – BOJONG – CARINGIN

RUTE ANGKOT CARINGIN – SADANG SERANG :
CARINGIN – BOJONG – CIJERAH – ELANG – ABD. SALEH – RADJIMAN – TAMAN SARI – GANESHA – Ir. H. JUANDA – TUBAGUS ISMAIL

RUTE ANGKOT CIBADUYUT – KARANGSETRA :
LEUWI PANJANG – KOPO – ASTANA ANYAR – PASIR KALIKI – SUKAJADI – DR. SUTAMI

RUTE ANGKOT KARANGSETRA – CIBADUYUT :
DR. SUTAMI – SEDERHANA – PASIR KALIKI – ASTANA ANYAR – KOPO – LEUWI PANJANG -CIBADUYUT

 


MANIFESTO 2015 Sustainable Growth With Equity By DR. SUSILO BAMBANG YUDHOYONO

Speech at The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)

MANIFESTO 2015 Sustainable Growth With Equity
By DR. SUSILO BAMBANG YUDHOYONO
President of the Republic of Indonesia
At The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) Bogor,
13 June 2012

Bismillahirrahmanirrahim,
Assalamu’alaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh
Your Honour Ms Frances Seymour, the Director General of CIFOR,
Excellencies Ministers and Ambassadors,
Chiefs of International Organizations,
Distinguished Guests,
Ladies and Gentlemen,
Let me begin by expressing my appreciation to the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) for organizing this event. Let me also congratulate CIFOR for its strong contribution to Indonesia for the past twenty years in the field of forestry research, education and development traning. Indeed it has become a global scale international organization in the field of forestry.

A TIMELY MEETING …
This event could not be more timely. Next week, I will depart to Mexico to attend the G-20 Leaders meeting in Los Cabos. Right after that, I will go to Brazil to attend the Rio+20 Summit in Rio. In September, at the invitation of the UN Secretary-General, I will travel to New York to attend the High Level Panel Post-2015 Development Agenda. In all these places, we all hope for constructive outcomes that will make us feel better about the future direction of the world. (more…)


Somalia,Failed State to Pirate Country

Somalia, Failed State become Pirate Country.

Somalia, officially the Republic of Somalia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Djibouti to the northwest, Kenya on its southwest, the Gulf of Aden with Yemen on its north, the Indian Ocean at its east, and Ethiopia to the west. Somalia’s terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains, and highlands. The weather is hot throughout the year, except at the higher elevations in the north. Rainfall is sparse, and most of Somalia has a semiarid-to- arid environment. Somalia principally desert area; Somalia faces Natural hazards likes recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season.

Somalia situated at The Horn of Africa

Somalia’s long coastline (more than 3,300 kilometers) has been of importance chiefly in permitting trade with the Middle East and the rest of the Horn of Africa. With this geographic ituation, Somalia is facing problems with their desert land, but have advantages in maritime area.

Somalia organized into clan groupings, which are important social units; clan membership plays a central part in Somali culture and politics. Clans are patrilineal and are typically divided into sub-clans, sometimes with many sub-divisions. The Clan structure plays important role in Somalia social and culture. There are 5 main clan in Somalia, Darod, Dir, Hawiye, Isaaq and Rahanweyn. Each clan try to get influence among Somalia government. (more…)


2011 Tunza International Children and Youth Conference, Bandung Declaration, October 1, 2011

2011 Tunza International Children and Youth Conference
Bandung Declaration
 October 1, 2011
 
 The Voice of Children & Youth for Rio+20
§1 We, the delegates to the 2011 Tunza International Children and Youth Conference representing 126 different countries, are united in calling upon world leaders to move to a sustainable development pathway that safeguards the Earth and its people for our generation and generations to come. We urge governments to respond to and not ignore the demands of the children and youth.
Section 1: Rio+20 and the Promises to Our Generation
§2 Next year, our leaders will meet in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to critically assess and accelerate our progress towards sustainable development. The “Rio+20” gathering will mark a generation since the 1992 Earth Summit – the first [effective] global recognition of the environmental, social and economic costs of unrestrained development.
§3 While we were not at the Earth Summit in 1992, we know that it was transformative. As the result, sustainable development has become a critical component in the protection of the environment and the eradication of poverty. We have met the youth and children who stood there and called to the moral consciences of our leaders and citizens to act.

Official UNEP Tunza Conference 2011 Theme Song – City of Glass

CITY OF GLASS by: Gary Oenawihardja
Tunza Indonesia..going road to Rio+20
VERSE:
And I said to myself
This is such a beautiful world
Since the day that I was born and until now
But lately, as we know
Human never stop sprouting pollution
If this keeps going on then word “beautiful” will be history
REFF:
Now the world turns into city of glass
When everything got worse and getting more worse
Are we doing nothing?
That’s the question of the day
Get out from the spell and break the glass
Don’t wait for the others, be the first to start
Breathe the world a new life
For the next generation
Heyy..ya..heyy…yo (4x)
BRIDGE(ending):
Leave a green life and save energy
Protect our forests
“reduce, reuse, and recycle”
Tell your neighbours and friends
Let’s all be the hero of our future..